Ideas of the political present time

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Politics is the set of activities associated with decision-making in groups or other forms of power relationships between individuals, such as the distribution of resources or status. The academic study of politics and political analysis (in spanish: análisis político) is known as political science.

Politics is a multifaceted word. It can be used positively in the context of a "political solution" that is compromising and non-violent, or descriptively as "the art or science of government," but often carries a negative connotation. For example, abolitionist Wendell Phillips declared that "we do not play politics; the fight against slavery is not a joke to us. The concept has been defined in various ways, and the different approaches have fundamentally different views on whether it should be used extensively or narrowly, empirically or normatively, and whether conflict or cooperation is more essential to it.

A variety of methods are implemented in politics today (actualidad política), including promoting one's political views to people, negotiating with other political subjects, making laws, and using force, including warfare against adversaries. Politics is exercised at a wide range of social levels, from clans and tribes in traditional societies, through modern local governments, businesses and institutions, to sovereign states, to the international level. In modern nation states, people often form political parties to represent their ideas. Members of a party often agree to take the same position on many issues and agree to support the same changes to the law and the same leaders. An election is often a competition between different parties.

A political system is a framework that defines acceptable political methods within a society. The history of political thought goes back to early antiquity, with seminal works such as Plato's Republic, Aristotle's Politics, Chanakya's Arthashastra and Chanakya Niti (3rd century BC), as well as the works of Confucius.


Democracy is a system of conflict processing in which results depend on what participants do, but no single force controls what happens and its outcomes. Uncertainty of outcome is inherent in democracy. Democracy makes all forces fight repeatedly to realize their interests and delegates power from groups of people to sets of rules.

Among modern political theorists, there are three opposing conceptions of democracy: aggregating democracy, deliberative democracy, and radical democracy.


The theory of aggregate democracy asserts that the objective of democratic processes is to solicit the preferences of citizens and group them together to determine what social policies society should adopt. Therefore, proponents of this view argue that democratic participation should focus primarily on voting, where policy is implemented with more votes.

There are different variants of aggregate democracy. Under minimalism, democracy is a system of government in which citizens have given teams of political leaders the right to govern in periodic elections. According to this minimalist conception, citizens cannot and should not "govern" because, for example, on most issues, most of the time, they do not have clear views or their views are not well founded. Joseph Schumpeter articulated this most famous view in his book Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy. Contemporary proponents of minimalism include William H. Riker, Adam Przeworski, Richard Posner.

According to the theory of direct democracy, on the other hand, citizens should vote directly, not through their representatives, on legislative proposals. Proponents of direct democracy offer several reasons to support this view. Political activity can be valuable in itself, it socializes and educates citizens, and popular participation can control powerful elites. Most importantly, citizens do not govern themselves unless they directly decide on laws and policies.

Governments will tend to produce laws and policies close to the views of the average voter, with half to their left and half to their right. This is not a desirable outcome, as it represents the action of selfish and somewhat responsible political elites competing for votes. Anthony Downs suggests that ideological political parties are needed to act as intermediaries between individuals and governments. Downs set out this view in his 1957 book An Economic Theory of Democracy.

Robert A. Dahl argues that the fundamental democratic principle is that, when it comes to binding collective decisions, each person in a political community is entitled to have his or her interests given equal consideration (not necessarily that all people are equally satisfied by the collective decision). It uses the term polyarchy to refer to societies in which there is a certain set of institutions and procedures that are perceived to be conducive to such democracy. The first and foremost of these institutions is the regular occurrence of free and open elections. These are used to select representatives who then administer all or most of society's public policies. However, these oligarchic procedures may not create a full democracy if, for example, poverty prevents political participation. Similarly, Ronald Dworkin argues that "democracy is a substantive ideal, not merely procedural". 


Deliberative democracy is based on the notion that democracy is government by deliberation. Unlike aggregate democracy, deliberative democracy holds that, for a democratic decision to be legitimate, it must be preceded by genuine deliberation, not simply the aggregation of preferences that occurs in the vote. Authentic deliberation is a deliberation among decision-makers that is free from distortions of unequal political power, such as the power a decision-maker gained through economic wealth or interest group support. If decision-makers cannot reach consensus after authentically deliberating on a proposal, then they vote on the proposal using a form of majority rule.


Radical democracy is based on the idea that there are hierarchical and oppressive power relations in society. The role of democracy is to make those relationships visible and to challenge them by allowing for differences, dissent and antagonism in decision-making processes.


In the latest political news (últimas noticias políticas), equality is a state of affairs in which all people within a specific society or isolated group have the same social status, especially socio-economic status, including protection of human rights and dignity, and equal access to certain social goods and services. In addition, it can also include health equity, economic equity and other social values. Social equality requires the absence of legally imposed class or caste boundaries and the absence of discrimination based on an inalienable part of a person's identity. To this end, there must be equal justice before the law and equal opportunity regardless of, for example, sex, gender, ethnicity, age, sexual orientation, origin, caste or class, income or property, language, religion, belief, opinion, health or disability


Left-right spectrum 

A common understanding of politics is across the political spectrum from left to right, ranging from left wing politics through centrism to right wing politics. This classification is relatively recent and dates back to the French Revolution, when members of the National Assembly who supported the republic, ordinary people, and a secular society sat on the left and supporters of the monarchy, aristocratic privilege, and the Church sat on the right. Today, the left is generally progressive, seeking progress in society. The more extreme elements of the left, called the extreme left, tend to support revolutionary means to achieve this. This includes ideologies such as communism and Marxism. The center-left, on the other hand, advocates more reformist approaches, for example, that of social democracy. In contrast, the right is generally motivated by conservatism, which seeks to preserve what it sees as the important elements of society. The extreme right goes further and often represents a reactionary. It turns against progress, seeking to undo it. Examples of such ideologies have included fascism and Nazism. The center right may be less clear and more mixed in this regard, with neoconservatives supporting the spread of democracy and conservatives of a nation more open to social welfare programs.

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